A) carbon, iron, and sulfur
B) hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen
C) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
D) hydrogen, oxygen, and potassium
During the processes of respiration and photosynthesis in plant cells, what are the three primary elements that cycle between the mitochondria and chloroplasts?
The exact response is Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen letter B.
The explanation is this :
- Chloroplasts are organelles that conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll absorbs, converts and retains the energy from sunlight in the energy storage molecules ATP and NADPH while releasing oxygen from the water in plant and algal cells.We then use the ATP and NADPH to create organic carbon dioxide molecules in a method known as the Calvin cycle. Chloroplasts perform a variety of other functions including synthesis of fatty acids, a lot of synthesis of amino acids and immune response in plants.
- The number of chloroplasts per cell ranges from one to 100 in plants such as Arabidopsis and wheat in unicellular algae.
- A chloroplast is an organelle form known as plastid, distinguished by its two membranes and a high chlorophyll concentration. Certain forms of plastid, such as leucoplast and chromoplast, produce little chlorophyll, and do not conduct photosynthesis.
- Chloroplasts are highly dynamic — they migrate within plant cells and move around, and sometimes pinch in two to replicate. Their behavior is highly affected by environmental factors such as color and intensity of light. Chloroplasts,
- including mitochondria, contain their own DNA, which is believed to have been inherited from their ancestors — a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that an early eukaryotic cell had ingested in. The plant cell can't produce chloroplasts and each daughter cell will inherit them during cell division.
- For one exception (the amieboid Paulinella chromatophora), all chloroplasts are likely to be traced back to a single endosymbiotic occurrence, when the eukaryote has engulfed a cyanobacterium. Notwithstanding this, chloroplasts can be present in an incredibly large range of species, some of which are not even specifically linked to each other — a result of several secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic occurrences.
- The term chloroplast derives from the Greek terms chloros, meaning green, and plasts, meaning "the forming individual."
- Chloroplasts inside the plant cell are one of several types of organelles. They are believed to evolve from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Mitochondria was believed to have developed from a common case of endosymbiosis in which an aerobic prokaryote was engulfed.
- The Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski first proposed this origin of chloroplasts in 1905, after Andreas Schimper discovered in 1883 that the chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria. Chloroplasty is present only in plants, algae and Paulinella chromatophora amieboids
Chloroplasts are called cyanobacteria which is endosymbiotic. Even though they are prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are also called blue-green algae. They are a complex phylum of bacteria that can conduct photosynthesis, and they are gram-negative, meaning they have two cell membranes.
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